Is The Principalship For You?
A Primer On In-School Leadership
Saskatchewan Educational Leadership Unit and Saskatchewan School Trustees Association
By Patrick Renihan and Pauline Leonard
Department of Educational Administration
University of Saskatchewan
Saskatoon, SK
SSTA Research Centre Report #00-05: 47 pages, $11
 
Table Of Contents

About This Document  

Introduction  

Is the Principalship For You? An Overview of Objectives  

Objective #1:  Motivations for Assuming the Principalship  

Objective #2:  Readiness  

Objective #3:  The Role  

Objective #4:  Effectiveness  Objective #5:  Factors Utilized in Selection   Objective #6:  Weighing the Pros and Cons   Objective #7:  Steps to be Taken   What Next?  

In-School Leadership: A Brief Literature Review  

References  

Suggestions for Further Readings  
 

     
Overview
    In the 21st century, the principal as leader will be far different from the principal of previous generations. The 21st century principal as leader will have to face a far different set of problems... These problems will require a whole different set of answers and new ways of thinking.
The Saskatchewan Educational Leadership Unit developed this resource for the Saskatchewan School Trustees Association.  This document and its related activities are intended to inform and support individuals who are seriously thinking about moving into in-school leadership.  The very significant task facing school systems lies not in merely finding sufficient numbers of people to seek the principalship; rather it lies in getting the right people to apply for the role.  The belief that traditional models of administrator selection, based largely upon ‘annointment’ and a conviction that “good teachers will make good administrators”, are no longer viable.  As you move through these pages, therefore, we ask you, given the contexts, role descriptions, effectiveness prescriptions and associated tensions we describe:  Is the principalship for you? If indeed it is, we include some pointers that you will find invaluable as you take the next steps in your career.  
 
Back to: Leadership


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Each copy must acknowledge the author and the SSTA Research Centre as the source. A complete and authorized copy
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The opinions and recommendations expressed in this report are those of the author and may not be in
agreement with SSTA officers or trustees, but are offered as being worthy of consideration by those responsible for making decisions.


About This Document

This document has been designed primarily to provide those who are contemplating in-school administration as a career with the critical information they will need as they make this important professional decision. In this regard, this document serves as a "primer" on in-school leadership. It is intended as an orientation to the role of the principal and should not, therefore, be viewed as a comprehensive examination of the intricacies and contexts of this very complex and multi-faceted role.

The processes and materials have been drawn from recent literature and research related to the principalship. They are presented in this document in a clear, reader-friendly form, easily accessible to those who are not acquainted with the body of literature on leadership and school management. It is anticipated, however, that the reader will wish to pursue further reading in one or more aspects of these materials. For this purpose, a categorized selection of references is included at the conclusion of the document.

This resource can be used in a variety of ways:

The document has been designed around seven basic questions which prospective principals commonly ask in deciding whether the principalship is for them: These questions are dealt with in this document in the form of seven objectives, each requiring the participant/reader to work through several basic pieces of information, and to engage in some focused self-reflection and group discussion.

We know that all principals work through these issues at some time during their recruitment to, and incumbency in, the role. It is hoped that thinking through these issues in the format represented in this document will provide aspirants with a much more informed basis for their decisions to pursue the job. In the long-term, this has implications for improving performance within the role. In turn, it has considerable potential for enhancing the quality of leadership and learning in our schools.


Table Of Contents


Introduction

Congratulations on considering in-school administration as a career! From your experiences as a teacher within the K-12 system, you are no doubt aware that these are complex and changing times for those working at any level in education. This impact is particularly marked for those in positions of formal leadership authority in schools and school systems and it may well lead some to shy away from administration in the belief that the job just isn't worth the hassle. At the same time, however, this is an exciting period in which to become a school administrator. The opportunities for exercising true leadership, given the curricular, structural and process changes which continue to occur in the educational system, are greater now than they have ever been. But those who choose to move into such roles need, more than ever before, to take careful stock of what the role entails, and to balance their decision with a careful weighing of the constraints and stresses of the role against the rewards and professional fulfilment the job can bring.
 
This document and its related activities have been designed to help you through that decision-making process. It follows the belief that traditional models of administrator selection, based largely upon ‘annointment’ and a conviction that “good teachers will make good administrators”, are no longer viable. The very significant task facing school systems lies not in merely finding sufficient numbers of people to seek the principalship; rather it lies in getting the right people to apply for the role. As you move through these pages, therefore, we ask you, given the contexts, role descriptions, effectiveness prescriptions and associated tensions we describe: Is the principalship for you? If indeed it is, we include some pointers which you will find invaluable as you take the next steps in your career. Good Luck!


Table of Contents


Is the Principalship for You? Overview of Objectives

1. To provide an opportunity for participants to reflect upon their motivations for pursuing a career as an in-school administrator and to compare these with recent research findings.

2. To provide an opportunity for participants to engage in focused reflection upon their own readiness for in-school administration as reflected in their specific skills and attributes.

3. To provide an overview of the role of the school principal as prescribed in legislation, as described in recent literature on in-school administration, and as enacted by experienced principals.

4. To examine experiences of participants regarding the characteristics of effective principals, and to provide an opportunity to compare these to recent research and leadership literature.

5. To examine the perceptions of employers and the findings of literature regarding the factors utilized in principal selection.

6. To provide for an examination of the sources of stress and sources of satisfaction typically associated with the role.

7. To provide a clear indication of further steps which should be taken toward realizing the goal of becoming an in-school administrator.


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Motivations for Assuming the Principalship

To provide an opportunity for participants to reflect upon their motivations for pursuing a career as an in-school administrator and to compare these with recent research findings.

The decision to pursue the principalship stems from a variety of motivations which have significant implications for performance and satisfaction of individuals once they have entered the principalship. For this reason, a careful examination of one's own motivations is an important step.

What are YOUR motivations? In the spaces below, record your thoughts on this important question:

A. If you were to pursue a position as school principal, what would be your most likely reasons for doing so? (*In order of importance):

1. ________________________________________________________________________
 ________________________________________________________________________
 ________________________________________________________________________

2.  ________________________________________________________________________
 ________________________________________________________________________
 ________________________________________________________________________

3.  ________________________________________________________________________
 ________________________________________________________________________
 ________________________________________________________________________

4.  ________________________________________________________________________
 ________________________________________________________________________
 ________________________________________________________________________

5.  ________________________________________________________________________
 ________________________________________________________________________
 ________________________________________________________________________
 

*Compare your responses with the research findings (Renihan, 1999) on the next page.

B. What, in your opinion, would be the "wrong" reasons to pursue a career in school administration?

1.  ________________________________________________________________________
 ________________________________________________________________________

2.  ________________________________________________________________________
 ________________________________________________________________________

3.  ________________________________________________________________________
 ________________________________________________________________________


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Motivations: Some Research Findings

A recent study completed for the Saskatchewan School Trustees' Association (Renihan, 1999) examined the motivations underlying the beginning principal's decision to assume the principalship. Some results are illustrated in Table 1.

Table 1: Perceptions of In-School Administrators Regarding Their Motivation for Assuming the Principalship (N-95)1
 
Reason Frequency2 Percent total responses
Opportunity for new challenges
23
16%
Opportunity to help children/students
21
14%
Opportunity to influence change and make a difference
16
11%
Opportunity to positively influence school effectiveness
14
10%
Administrator "annointment" encouragement/support
13
9%
"Career advancement" - future opportunities
11
8%
Belief in own leadership qualities
9
6%
Change from classroom instruction
8
6%
Colleague encouragement
7
5%
Personal growth
7
5%
Opportunity to influence policy/decision
5
3%
Financial Rewards
4
1%
Opportunity to correct a negative model
4
1%
 
11998 Saskatchewan Principals' Short Course Participants. This group represented a variety of positions, including teachers, vice-principals, and a variety of levels of experience.
2Some individuals identified several items.

As illustrated in Table 1, the most frequently identified motivations were: the opportunity for new challenges, the opportunity to help children, the opportunity to influence change and make a difference, and the opportunity to positively influence school effectiveness. Consider the following comments made by beginning principals in the above study:
 


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Readiness

To provide an opportunity for participants to engage in focused reflection upon their own readiness for in-school administration as reflected in their specific skills and attributes.
 
A useful overview of competencies related to in-school administration was provided by the (U.S.) National Policy Board for Educational Administration in 1990, when it identified 21 performance "domains" in the principalship. This provides a basis for some focused reflection on individual readiness for the job. For each "domain" identified below, a) check those aspects in which you consider your level of proficiency to be high, and b) identify those areas in which you need to build your proficiency levels:
 
Performance Domain  Strengths Improvements Needed 
1.  Leadership: Establishing direction; setting and balancing school needs and priorities within community and district context; initiating and planning organizational change; facilitating school improvement.     
2.  Information Collection: Gathering data from a variety of sources about educational stakeholders; classifying and organizing information for decision making.    
3.  Problem Analysis: Identifying and analyzing relevant information in a problem situation; framing problems; framing and reframing solutions; exhibiting conceptual flexibility; facilitating problem resolutions.    
4.  Judgment: Reaching logical conclusions and making high quality, timely decisions given the best available information.    
5.  Organizational Oversight: Designing and overseeing master schedule which maximizes human resource potential; managing and monitoring goals, priorities and projects.     
6.  Implementation: Actualizing programs and change plans, monitoring improvement, and adapting to new conditions; facilitating task completion.     
7.  Delegation: Assigning projects or tasks; establishing clear expectations for their timely and successful completion.    
8.  Instructional Program: Envisioning and enabling effective instructional programs and methods; mobilizing appropriate people or groups to develop these programs and to create positive learning climate; validating student diversity and accommodating individualized instructional needs.    
9.  Curriculum Design: Facilitating staff involvement in curricular planning; examining social and technological developments affecting curriculum; monitoring and revising content to meet current student needs.    
10.  Student Guidance and Development: Fostering student guidance, counseling, and auxiliary services for holistic student development; facilitating inter-organizational involvement.    
11.  Staff Development: Facilitating professional growth and self-development; planning and organizing programs to improve staff effectiveness; supervising individual individuals.    
12.  Measurement and Evaluation: Determining the diagnostic information needed about students, staff, and the school environment; interpreting measurement and evaluation of others; relating programs to desired outcomes    
13.  Resource Allocation: Planning and developing the budget; managing fiscal, human, and material resources; utilizing the physical plant; monitoring and reporting on resource use.    
14.  Motivating Others: Building commitment, creating participation, and channeling energy; recognizing, supporting, and rewarding effective performance and innovation; coaching, guiding, or correcting performance needing improvement; role modeling.    
15.  Sensitivity: Perceiving affective needs and concerns; managing conflict; recognizing multicultural sensitivities.    
16.  Oral Expression: Making clear oral presentations; clarifying and restating questions; facilitating group understanding and communication.    
17.  Written Expression: Communicating clearly and appropriately in writing for different audiences.    
18.  Philosophical and Cultural Values: Acting with a reasoned understanding of the role of education in a democratic society in accordance with accepted ethical standards; understanding the philosophical, historical, and global influences in education.     
19.  Legal and Regulatory Applications: Acting in accordance with relevant laws, rules, and policies; recognizing governmental influences on education; working within local rules, procedures, and directives.    
20.  Policy and Political Influences:  Examining and affecting policies individually and through professional and public groups; relating policy initiatives to the welfare of students; addressing ethical issues.    
21.  Public and Media Relationships: Developing common perceptions about school issues; interacting with parents and community opinion leaders; understanding and responding skilfully to the electronic and printed news media; initiating and reporting news through appropriate channels.     
 
Review:
 
A. My major proficiencies which make me well suited to the principalship
B. Proficiencies which I need to develop most in preparation for the principalship


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The Role

To provide an overview of the role of the school principal as prescribed in legislation, as described in recent literature on in-school administration, and as enacted by experienced principals.
 
Much of the literature on school leadership in recent years has made a clear and emphatic reference to the fact that school contexts, and therefore, the role of the principal, have been undergoing significant changes. While legislative changes and educational reforms have had their impacts upon structures and processes within and among schools and school systems, significant sociological changes (Portin & Shen, 1998) have brought with them a diversity of student needs and interests which have placed new demands upon schools (Murphy, 1992). Principals themselves are in the forefront of those who report that the roles of school-level leaders are undergoing significant change.
 
In addition, there have been significant changes in approaches to leadership and these have very different things to say about effectiveness in the work of principals than did the theories of thirty years ago. According to Kaiser (1995), there seems to be a general consensus of opinion that many of what were considered fundamental practices of the principalship in the 1980s will be of markedly different priority in the 2000s.1
 
In the following pages, aspects of the role of the principal are outlined as they are prescribed in the Saskatchewan Education Act, as they are described by selected authorities, and as they are perceived to be enacted by those performing the role. Following this is an overview of roles and related issues concerning the vice/assistant principalship.
 

1For a fuller discussion of these perspectives, consult the brief literature review appended to these materials.


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The Prescribed Role:  The Saskatchewan Education Act (1995)
 
Duties of Principal

175(1) Subject to the stated policies of the board of education or the conseil scolaire and to the regulations, a principal, under the supervision of the director, shall be responsible for the general organization, administration and supervision of the school, its program and professional staff and for administrative functions that pertain to liaison between the school and the board of education or the conseil scolaire and its officials.

(2) The principal shall:

Clarifying roles and responsibilities via legislation is important for consistency and for establishing key expectations. However, such prescription for the principals’ role do not fully capture the complexity of the job. As Leithwood, Begley & Cousins point out:
 

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The Multiple Roles Of The Principal

Numerous attempts have been made to make sense of the complex roles and responsibilities of the principalship. There is no doubt that expectations and prescriptions for the role vary according to context and type of school. However, the following would seem to be basic to most situations:

1. Linking-Pin Role. The principal may be perceived as the linking-pin (or communication link) between teachers and the system as a whole, the community and the school, the learner and the educational program, and so on. The principal is often referred to as the "person in the middle" of many interactions in public education.

2. Instructional Leadership Role. Frequent reference has been made to this important role, but it would not be prudent to omit it from any list. Everyone agrees with its importance; how to fulfill it is often vaguely or poorly defined.

3. The Catalyst Role. To motivate professional personnel, to stimulate better student performance, and in general to make good things happen through the efforts of the principal in the education equation is what is meant by the word catalyst.

4. Resource Manager Role. The principal is held accountable for the protection, best use, and auditing of resource use in the instructional process within the school.

5. Security, Control, or Discipline Roles. Learning cannot take place in an environment of fear, disruption, or chaos. Recent events have pushed the security, control, and discipline roles of principals into matters of considerable and high priority.

6. Project Manager Role.

7. Student Ombudsman-Counselor Roles.

Knezevich, S. (1984) Administration of
Public Education. NY: Harper & Row (1984)
 
*Discussion Question:

How might the priority which principals give to the above roles vary according to type and context of their schools?


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The Five Functions and Two Dimensions of the Principalship

 
Ubben, G.C., Hughes, L.W. (1997)
The Principal: Creative Leadership for Effective Schools
Toronto: Allyn & Bacon

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A Principal's Perspective on the Role:  A Day in the Life of An Educational Administrator

 (Your mother should have told you there'd be days like this.)

“Buzz.” The alarm clock frightens me out of a dead sleep. Six o’clock on the button! I stumble to the shower and speculate how my day will unfold. The only thing for certain is that there are no certainties in the day of a principal. Phone calls, interruptions, impromptu visits from parents, students, and staff.

During my drive, I muse about how I will deal with the male student who has urinated on the girls’ change room floor, what I will say to his parents and to the director about the whole mess. I enter my building through the east door. In the staff room, I start the day with an inspirational verse on the board. Today’s choice: “Remember the direction you take in life is more important than the speed.” I put the daily announcements in the communication binder, start the coffee, turn on the photocopier and head through the workroom to my office.

I check my e-mail, send some messages, return some phone calls, and begin to get ready for the teaching and administrative responsibilities for the day. I check my agenda and see that I must meet with a group of administrators and coordinators at noon to continue to plan our student leadership conference. During the afternoon I must meet with the “urinator” and his parents, agree on some restitution and press for some counseling for the student. After school I have an emergency preparedness meeting where I am helping to develop a system to prepare students and staff for emergencies. At 4:30 the senior boys’ basketball team, which I coach, will be playing our cross-town rivals for basketball supremacy. Following this, I have a hockey practice. Community coach and chairperson of Kidsport are two other hats to be thrown into the mix!

At 7:15 the facility operator arrives, and informs me that the rental from the night before has left a mess again. At 7:30 my colleague, and second in command, arrives. We sit down in her office over a cup of coffee, and plan for our student with the incredibly bad aim. We discuss the importance of being firm, fair, and just, and contemplate the reaction and level of support from his parents. With no other pressing matters I am off to begin my photocopying for the day.

Many of our staff and students arrive by 7:40 a.m. I greet the early-birds and help our breakfast corner workers prepare juice, toast, and cheese for our first setting. At 7:50 I am paged to the office to take a phone call. A parent from the other junior high wants to transfer her daughter to our school. I listen to her concerns and make a note to check with my colleagues across the city.

It is now 8:10 and a number of students have asked if I will watch them play a game of “bump” in the gym. I join in until I am paged to the office. The renters have phoned to apologize about the mess left from the indoor soccer. I share my concerns, and we make a plan. Out of the corner of my eye, I spot a teacher with an anxious look in her eye. She asks for advice concerning a problem student. I take down the details, suggest a plan, and tell her that I will deal with it. A home visit may be on the agenda for tomorrow.

At 8:40 the bell rings and the students move to their advisors. Soon I am in the Grade 6 pod joking with my neighbors and greeting my students as they enter my advisory. I am now set to take on the day. My five period morning will be filled with three periods of teaching, one period of MBWA, and one period before noon returning phone calls, reviewing my over-extended budget and opening mail. As for the afternoon... another two classes, basketball, and then I am off to coach my AA Bantam hockey team.

Life is chaotic, but I enjoy the challenges and the rewards of my work. My advice to aspiring principals is to seek a mentor, develop a support system, spend some time as a vice principal, reflect, learn to juggle, and take every opportunity to sharpen your proverbial administrative saw. Most importantly, take time for yourself.

Kyle McIntyre, Principal
Fairview School
Swift Current, SK
 

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The Principal’s Role from the Students’ Perspective

What Grade 3 and 4 Students See as the Role of the Principal
 
 • To keep the teachers on the right track.
 • To be helpful.
 • To get the kids in more trouble by telling their parents.
 • To solve problems.
 • To do announcements.
 • To look after students when the teachers are in meetings.
 • To boss the janitors around.
 • To help out the teachers.
 • To get substitutes.
 • To keep the school safe.
 • To help run meetings.
 • Gets hot dogs for hot dog day.
 • Plans parent/teacher interviews.
 • Last to leave the building during fire drill.
 • Makes rules.
 • To solve problems
 • To keep the school running
 • To make sure the announcements are said over the intercom
 • To make kids stop fighting at recess
 • To keep the school a safe place
 • To plan activities
 • To keep kids from swearing
 • To hire teachers
 • To make sure there is no violence on the playground
 • To give fire drills
 • To make us happy
 • To plan assemblies
 • To make sure nobody steals
 • To pay the teachers
 • To make sure everybody wears a helmet
 • To keep the environment clean
 • To put desks in the classroom
 • To make sure the attendance is sent
 

John Reddekopp, Principal
Venture Heights School,
Martensville, SK

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The Vice Principalship/Assistant Principalship

Roles:

• Instructional Leadership
• Management of Conflicts
• Management (scheduling, discipline, plant management)
• Liaison between principal and teachers (spokesperson, buffer, etc.)
• Carrying out vision of superiors
• Vision - development, creation of shared goals
• Evaluation
• Student Guidance

Role Possibilities (Calabrese, 1991):

• As Leaders
• As Disciplinaries
• As Change Agents
• As Prescriptive Agents
• As Motivators
• As Ethical Models
• As Community Relations Agents
• As Care Agents
• As Innovators

Some Common Issues:

• Career commitment? Or step on the administrative ladder?
• There is a significant difference between the idealized VP role and what they actually do.
• Hartzell (1993) noted that VPs are required to devote vast amounts of time and energy to management duties.


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Vice Principal Functions: The Real and the Ideal

A. Indicate how frequently the VP does, and should, perform each function:
 
IDEAL (SHOULD)
 
REAL (DOES)
 
Very Often
Often Occasio 
nally
Seldom Never   Very Often Often Occasio 
nally
Seldom Never
1 2 3 4 5 Instructional 
Leadership
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5 Conflict 
Management
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5 Teacher-Principal 
Liasion
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5 Vision- 
Development
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5 Evaluation 1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5 Student Guidance 
& Discipline
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5 Community/ 
Parent Relations
1 2 3 4 5
 
B. Which areas represent the greatest difference between the 'real' and the 'ideal' in your perception?

a) _______________________________________________________________________
 

b)  _______________________________________________________________________
 

c) _______________________________________________________________________
 

The Vice-Principalship: Discussion Questions

1. How should the vice principalship be viewed?

2. How should the vice-principal's role be designed to facilitate effective preparation for the principalship?


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Effectiveness

To examine experiences of participants regarding the characteristics of effective principals, and to provide an opportunity to compare these to recent research and leadership literature.
 
The quality of in-school administration is vital to school success. For over fifteen years, the developing body of research on effective schools has consistently pointed to the part played by responsible, assertive and visible school-level leadership in school success (Sergiovanni, 1991; Austin & Reynolds, 1990). This is one reason why the effective schools movement relies so heavily on the notion of leadership development; as Howley and Eckman (1997) point out:
 


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Activity: What Makes a Principal Effective?

What characteristics do you believe are important for principals to be effective? In the following sections, reflect upon effective and ineffective characteristics of principals you have worked with.

a) Think of an effective principal you have worked with, and write down some of the things he/she did that you thought were effective.
 
b) Think of principals you have worked with and write down some of the things they did that you thought were not effective.
 
c) Share your ideas in small groups and prepare a poster to share with the large group.


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Effective Educational Leaders (ASCD, 1989)
 
 1. Provide a sense of vision to their schools.

2. Engage in participative management.

3. Provide support for instruction.

4. Monitor instruction.

5. Are resourceful.
 
Which of these skills do you believe are things others would identify in your style of work as a school principal?

Which of these skills represent areas that you think you would need to work on?


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Effective Schools Correlates...What Does The Effective Principal Do To Make These Happen?

Source: Renihan, P. and Sackney, L. (1999).
Reviewing School Effectiveness
  

Table Of Contents



 Critical Skills For The Principalship
 
Daresh and Playko (1997)
 

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Principal Effectiveness: Perceptions of Prospective Principals

 The following 'effective' and 'ineffective' behaviours of principals were identified by participants (N=75) during leadership seminars (Saskatchewan Education Leadership Unit, 1999). They had been asked to reflect upon the effective and ineffective behaviours of principals with whom they had worked.
 
Listens to staff/students. Empathetic. Considers Pupil Away from school a lot
Builds rapport with staff/students Unethical disclosure of information
Visible in school and community; attends functions  Ignores problems/Unable to deal with concerns
Approachable  Doesn't follow through
Respects confidentiality and professionalism Poor model for staff and students
Is familiar with curriculum developments Provides little support/feedback
Supportive of teachers, professionals Has poor people skills
Empowers, gives credit to others Not visible, tends to be evasive; stays in office
Encourages staff/student leadership Poorly organized
Communicates well and frequently Uses guilt as a motivator
Ensures a safe environment Doesn't follow through on things
Has a consistent student behaviour policy Plays favourites; unequal treatment
Has a vision of goals for the school Does not communicate well
Well organized Lacks energy
Puts children first Power hungry
Is an instructional leader Limited commitment to school/community
Expects and promotes growth Inflexible
Risk-taker and risk promoter Takes all the glory
Has open-door policy  
Delegates effectively   
Acknowledges success   
Promotes and models school pride   
Deals with issues promptly  
Self-reflective   
Good role models/leads by example   
Involved in professional development   
 


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Factors Utilized in Selection

To examine the perceptions of employers and the findings of literature regarding the factors utilized in principal selection.

Many factors influence decisions about principal selection. Prospective principals might ask: If I decide to seek appointment to the principalship, what skills and attributes should I be developing? What kind of background experiences and qualities will be sought by those who will do the hiring? What interviewing process will they use? These are common but critical questions among new aspirants to the principalship. Examine the following list of selection criteria. How would you rate? Which aspects do you need to develop? Following this, you will find a sample interview process - one actually used by a Saskatchewan school division.


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Factors Utilized in Principal Selection
 
Related Experience: Teaching activities/Administrative activities/Leadership activities
Breadth of Knowledge/Mental Ability: General intelligence and "withitness" in handling problems and issues 
Knowledge about Developments in Education: Familiarity with educational reforms, innovation, and provincial/local initiatives
Command of English Language; Ability to Communicate Ideas: Articulateness; ability to make self understood by various groups
Energy: Demonstration of enthusiasm for the work of schools
Emotional Stability: Good role model of maturity and confidence
Interpersonal Skills: Ability to relate positively and constructively with colleagues, parents and students
Scholarship: Proven ability to work on own professional development. Serve as a model for "lifelong learning" 
Moral Fitness: Exemplar for standards required of students and staff
Physical Fitness: Demonstrates a healthy lifestyle
 
Discussion Question:

Which of the above factors would you rank as the most important?


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Buffalo Plains School Division No. 2  Interview Guide: Principal Attitudes and Potential

The following questions and topics are intended to serve as a guide. An opportunity will be provided for additional questions during the course of the interview.

A. Introduction

Introductions and general talk to put the person being interviewed at ease.

B. Purpose

This interview has two purposes:

C. Format

An explanation of interview steps to applicant:

D. Qualifications

Professional training

Experience E. Questions
 
1. What is your philosophy of administration?

2. What should be the role of the principal of the school?
 
3. What experiences do you feel have prepared you for this position?

4. What is the role of the teacher? Define the superior teacher. What are your expectations?

5. Describe to us your level of expertise in computer use. How important are computers in the education of secondary students?

6. How would you describe your management style?
 
7. Please elaborate on the principal's role regarding teacher supervision and evaluation.
 
8. Priorities in a school - academics? programming? students? bake sales? co-curricular?
 
9. How do you solve problems?
 
10. Philosophy re evaluation and promotion of students?
 
11. What type of relationship should exist between the principal and Director of Education? Assistant Director of Education? Sub-Division Board Member? Board of Education?

12. In your opinion, what makes a good school? What would be the ideal school philosophy for you?

13. What is your position on extra-curricular activities in a school?

14. What is your philosophy regarding discipline? Student management?
 
15. In your opinion, what are the purposes of public education?

16. What is your opinion of the High School Review Committee's recommendation on Language Arts credits?

17. Why should we hire you for this position?
 
F. Opportunity for applicant to ask questions

G. Closing Comments


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Weighing the Pros and Cons

To provide for an examination of the sources of stress and sources of satisfaction typically associated with the role.
 
As with any job, in-school administration has its ups and downs. New candidates should devote serious thought to the opportunities and challenges that the role might present.
 
What is your image of the principalship? More specifically, from what you have seen in your work in schools, what do you perceive to be the major sources of principal satisfaction and principal stress? How these balance out will have great significance for your decision to seek such a position.

A. Below, record your perceptions as to the major "satisfiers" and "dissatisfiers" of the job.
 
Satisfiers  Dissatisfiers
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
   
 
B. Check your responses against the listing on the following page.


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What the Literature Says

Recent studies of the principalship (Renihan, 1999) reveal several satisfiers and dissatisfiers associated with the job. The more commonly identified factors are:
 
Satisfiers  Dissatisfiers
Prestige   Multiple Expectations 
Sense of Efficacy Time Constraints
Autonomy Community Politics
Authority  Staff-Parent Conflicts
Helping Students  Student Discipline  
Administrative Networks Conflicting Demands 
Salary and Benefits Balancing Teaching and Administration
Visibility Isolation 
 

The Principalship: Some Current Tensions
(Ripley, 1997)

Tensions of Leadership

Tensions of Needs Socio/Cultural Tensions

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Steps To Be Taken

To provide a clear indication of further steps which should be taken toward realizing the goal of becoming an in-school administrator.
 
To this point, you have reflected upon your motivations and readiness for in-school administration; examined various facets of the role of the principal and the vice-principal; considered the qualities of effective principals; and reviewed the criteria utilized in their selection and appointment. So far, so good! Now, let us assume that, having finally weighed the benefits against the drawbacks, you wish to become an in-school administrator. What do you do next?
 
First, you need to revisit issues related to the vice-principalship, because there is a good chance that your career path will incorporate some service in this capacity. Second, you should review each of the eight aspects of your support system, illustrated below, then consider the questions on the next page that correspond to each facet of your support system.
 


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Developing Your Support System
 
Preservice: In what specific ways can you prepare for this job?  
What university and other programs are available? 
Recruitment/Induction: What skills do you need to develop?  
What do boards look for in recruiting principals?  
What are the recruitment processes? 
Professional Development: What professional development opportunities are available for practicing principals? 
Community Partnerships: What are your current skills in building effective relationships with parents and community?  
How do effective principals do this?
Role Structure: How explicit are board expectations for the role?  
How familiar are you with Education Act specifications? 
Reward System:   How familiar are you with reward/compensation arrangements? 
Professional Affiliation: What are the local provincial and national associations for school administrators? How can you access them?  
Mentorship:  What individuals could serve in a mentoring capacity as you assume the roles and responsibilities of the job?
 
*  In your discussion group:

a.  Share ideas relating to the above questions.
 
b.  Prepare any questions you may have for the larger group on related issues.


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What Next?

“I shall be telling this with a sigh
Somehere ages and ages hence
Two paths diverged in a wood, and I-
I took the one less travelled by,
And that has made all the difference.”
Robert Frost
Do your groundwork Be Visible Extend Your Preservice and Inservice Preparation Develop Your Leadership Platform

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In-School Leadership:  A Brief Literature Review
 
Much of the literature on school leadership in recent years has made a clear and emphatic reference to the fact that school contexts, and therefore the role of the principal, have been undergoing significant changes. While legislative changes and educational reforms have had their impacts upon structures and processes within and among schools and school systems, significant sociological changes (Portin & Shen, 1998) have brought with them a diversity of student needs and interests which have placed new demands upon schools (Murphy, 1992). Principals themselves are in the forefront of those who report that the roles of school level leaders are undergoing significant change.
 
However, the reality of change itself is nothing new to those who have studied the nature and context of school leadership over the past thirty years. Forces which exert considerable influence on the principal's role today, did so thirty years ago. Egnatoff pointed out in 1965 that significant developments in social and economic conditions, research in educational psychology, changes in curriculum and instruction all had their impact. Renihan (1985) reported almost twenty years later that these factors were still prevalent. The significance of contemporary studies of the principalship, then, is not so much in the fact of change itself as it is in the new impacts it is exerting upon the work of school leaders. In addition, there have been significant changes in approaches to leadership and these have very different things to say about effectiveness in the work of principals than did the theories of thirty years ago. According to Kaiser (1995), there seems to be a general consensus of opinion that many of what were considered fundamental practices of the principalship in the 1980s will be of markedly different priority in the 2000s.
 
In this brief literature review, contemporary literature is examined in order to provide perspectives on the issues of principal recruitment and socialization; leadership effectiveness and its implications for principals' competencies; the realities and constraints of the job; and the means by which school level leaders receive support.
 
What Kind of Leadership is Desired?
 
Several relatively recent views of leadership and learning, within schools and organizations in general, are bringing about some significant changes in the way in which people work with one another in schools. One noteworthy development has been the move, in schools, from a predominantly hierarchical/authoritarian model of leadership to one characterized by a sharing relationship. According to Barth (1990), the model of the principal who unilaterally "runs" a school no longer works very well. He describes the responsibility of the principal as developing a "community of leaders" through:

Barth suggests that "the most critical role for the school principal is as 'head learner', engaging in the most important enterprise in the school house" (1990, p. 46). There are caveats to this leadership orientation, however. For example, Sametz (1996) in a study of effective leadership practices, observes that the sharing of leadership is found by principals to be a difficult concept when teachers continue to view school leadership hierarchically and solely the domain of the principal. He notes: Further, Portin and Shen (1998) point out that although new models of shared leadership and teacher empowerment have cast leadership responsibilities more widely, the principal remains the singular individual at the nexus of leadership in the school.
 
Walker (1998) adds an ethical dimension which he suggests is critical given the pervasiveness of ethics in everything we do as professional educators. He points out that educational leadership brings with it an additional challenge to serve by earning trust, and honouring it, by one's integrity and conduct in all private and official action. He notes "...not everything out there is true, reliable, good and beautiful. We need to be discerning... We need to build discerning professional school communities, with people of conscience and critique, commitment and covenant." (p. 3)
 
Another perspective that has found favour among writers and practitioners in various fields is that of the leader as "servant". Sergiovanni (1991) describes the implications of this idea for the principalship in the following terms: The best route to the fulfilment of these aspirations according to some recent writers (e.g., Schon, 1987; Leider, 1996) lies in self-reflection and self-leadership. As Leider points out: Perhaps the most significant trend in the literature related to school leadership in recent years has been toward the development of collaborative cultures, based upon a philosophy of professional interdependence championed by Judith Little (1982) and further developed and popularized by Fullan and Hargreaves (1991) in their popular work, What's Worth Fighting For: Working Together for Your School. Rosenholtz (1989) in this regard distinguished between "isolated cultures" and "collaborative cultures" in schools, and related this in part to the behaviour of principals. She noted that principals in "isolated" schools tend to "draw in, making a circle around themselves, to avoid any circumstances that may call their performance into question." She added: On the other hand, principals in collaborative settings decisively empower teachers to solve both school and classroom problems. "As a result", notes Rosenholtz, "teachers become aware of the importance of their input and feedback to principals" (p. 59). In a similar vein, Fullan (1997) builds upon these ideas in his discussion of strategies for success in the principalship, pointing out that "principals can make even more long-lasting contributions by broadening the base of leadership of those with whom they work - teachers, parents, students" (p. 46).
 Short and Greer (1997) develop the idea that empowerment is a critical key to effectiveness in contemporary schools, and emphasize the central role of the principal in bringing this quality to the forefront. Drawing upon the work of Ebmeier (1991), they suggest that the following components are necessary for principal leadership in empowered schools: Some recent writers, for example Smith (1996), discuss leadership as having a significant "followership" component. Smith argues that we need to craft an organizational culture that practices both the following and leading skills in all of its people. He suggests: This is not to say, however, that the principal should abdicate the ultimate responsibility and relevant accountability for the running of the school. In addition to Portin and Shen's (1998) aforementioned caveat, there is a formidable body of school effectiveness research which points to the connection between the existence of a strong, responsible, visible principal and school effectiveness (Hollinger and Heck, 1996). Furthermore, Leithwood and others (1993) found that when in-school conditions and processes were held constant, leadership variables had a significant effect on changes in teachers, programs, instruction and student outcomes. There is plenty of evidence to affirm that good principals make a very great difference.
 
Peter Senge's (1990) classic work on the "learning organization" provides a clear prescription as to what leadership in schools should look like. He notes that leaders in this new environment will fare best when they work as designers, developing learning processes so that people throughout the school can deal productively with the significant problems which emerge; as stewards, seeking direction and overseeing the purposes of the school; and as teachers, creating learning opportunities for everyone, helping people reach new understandings (cited in Fullan, 1997: pp. 13-14).
 
Walker (1998) conceptualizes four broad leadership roles (each governed by the core commitments of conscience, professional conviction, and ethical principles). He identifies the four roles as: steward of educational resources; servant of educational leaders; leader of leaders; and professional advocate of education.
 
The first roles of principals, according to Sergiovanni (1996) are ministerial ones. They have their bases in moral leadership and in the commitment to building a 'community of leaders', and they involve the following nine tasks: purposing; maintaining harmony; institutionalizing values; motivating; managing; explaining; enabling; modelling and supervising (p. 88-89). It should be noted that Sergiovanni, as does Senge and others, highlights the "teaching" or "pedagogical" dimension of leadership, with its implications for helping staff to grow and develop within the context of their work. This emerges as an element of leadership rendered increasingly important as school contexts, and therefore the demands on school professionals, change.
 
We are consistently brought back to reality, however, by the persistent issues of time and overload. Most authorities would agree that these must be addressed before any significant gains in leadership can be achieved. This brief review turns, therefore, to an examination of contemporary research on the work of principals, their contexts, and prescriptions for their role.

The Work of Principals
 
Sutton's (1994) study of the real and ideal time-use of rural principals revealed strong agreements that the principal should spend significant time as "instructional leader", by getting into classrooms more regularly. He also found that, although the literature suggests that consistency of expectation is important, different actors (principals, teachers, directors) all have different views of how principals are "really" using their time, and also how they "ideally" should use it. Even more revealing was his finding that, even though school divisions have policies that outline the roles of the principal, few teachers have seen them or are aware that they exist.
 
Image of the principalship among other school personnel is important, and probably influences the decisions of teachers to seek the job. In the long term, according to Short & Greer (1997), it influences how new principals perform the job. They note that, just like the saying 'the best predictor of how one teaches is how one was taught', the corollary of the statement is the best predictor of how a person will administer a school is how the schools he or she attended were administered (p. 52). This is as good an argument as any for mentoring and shadowing relationships between beginning and more experienced principals.
 
The principal's job itself has been described in a variety of studies as characterized by constant interruptions, dilemmas (Sametz, 1996), conflicting demands (Renihan, 1985), lack of planning time, fragmentation of activities, and the burden of roles and regulations (Portin & Shen, 1998). In reflecting upon an internship experience in an urban high school principalship, Peebles (1994) recalls his encounters with the multiple tasks and time-demands of the job:

Fullan & Hargreaves (1991) describe a study of school principals in which they were asked to indicate whether the expectations for their work had increased or decreased. It is noteworthy that across all reported dimensions of their work, 90% of them reported an increase in expectations. In addition, time demands were reported to have increased in the areas of (in order of degree) community relations, trustee requests, administrative activities, staff and student involvement, and social services (p. 1).
 
In reflecting upon the effect of these demands, Fullan cites Evans' (1996) finding that the explosion of demands decreases school leaders' sense of efficiency and heightens their feelings of isolation, insecurity and inadequacy" (p. 156).
 
Many of these issues were also indicated in studies pertaining to leadership for small school and rural school contexts. For example, Arnold (1995), in a study of principals' effectiveness in small, rural schools, found that the most significant issues related to their efforts to run an effective school were community relationships and staff harmony. In regard to the former, he pointed to the lack of understanding of community values as an impediment to leadership, particularly when those values deviated significantly from those of the staff. On the matter of staff harmony, he noted that in small schools in particular, "the school can not afford to have a divided team" (p. 92). Arnold found that the major constraints to the effectiveness of principals' work in rural small schools were: a) poor attitudes of parents; and b) lack of time to exercise key leadership tasks.
 
Similarly, an earlier study (Renihan, 1985) revealed several significant constraints under which rural-based principals work. These included inadequacies in available time for administration and supervision, problems of isolation, difficulties with community and local board politics, and feelings of ambiguity regarding the role. Further, Sigford (1998) has noted that school administrators are typically ill-prepared and ill-trained for the socio-emotional facets of their jobs. She adds that: "The literature does not discuss the stages of change and grief that a person must complete successfully in order to remain and be successful in this position." (p. iv)
 
Several additional considerations are identified by McAdams (1998) in his analysis of the principal "shortage" in the United States. Among these, he notes that the impact of democratic governance and the enhanced power of students, teachers, and parents, has steadily diminished the principal's authority, despite the fact that the principal is increasingly held accountable for student performance. According to McAdams, this "middle management bind of responsibility without commensurate authority" leads many principals to increased frustration, increased stress, and diminished job satisfaction (p. 39).
 One common aspect, which emerges as an issue, in many reviews of principalship concerns, is that of isolation, an issue which prompted Sigford (1998) to pose the question, as a title to one of her chapters: “Why is it So Quiet in the Teachers' Lounge?" As one possible solution to such isolation, the vice-principalship/assistant principalship is consistently viewed as a critical aspect of in-school leadership.
 
Panyako & Rorie (1987) view the vice-principalship as, potentially, the most dynamic feature of the school system. Unfortunately, they add, the vice principal often gets assigned to such administrative details as supervision of buses, cafeterias, student lockers, sport events, fund-raising, buildings and grounds, and student behaviour management. Marshall and Greenfield (1985) propose that instructional leadership and management responsibility be incorporated as a significant dimension of the role of the vice principal. They note that such an inclusion is vital to their development of skills critical to effective school leadership. Studies (e.g., Hartzell, 1993) suggest that vice principals often get stuck in that position because their functions differ significantly from that of principals. It is no wonder, therefore, that researchers have found levels of alienation to be greater among vice-principals than among principals (Calabrese & Adams, 1988). How can this be overcome? The principal has been viewed as the ideal individual to provide a mentoring relationship for the vice principal (Calabrese & Tucker-Ladd, 1996) thereby creating opportunities for growth of self-confidence, maturation, and professional development.
 
Of course, mentorship is something from which principals can also benefit. Numerous studies (e.g., Portin & Shen, 1998) have pointed to the tendency of managerial responsibilities to supplant the leadership of the principal. This, together with the unrelenting proliferation of expectations, has been seen as a significant factor in the obvious gap which exists between theory and practice (McEwan, 1998). Daresh & Playko (1992) are convinced that overcoming this persistent constraint is a fact of leadership development in the early years of a principal's tenure. They point to research which suggests that school leadership is enhanced when clear, focused efforts are made to help novice school leaders through their first professional duties. Crow & Matthews (1998) advocate long-term, conscious approaches to mentorship as important means of accomplishing this, and add that support and mentoring should be a career-long experience.


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References

Arnold, R. (1995). Leadership effectiveness and the small rural school. Unpublished Mentors Project. Saskatoon, University of Saskatchewan.

Austin, G. & Reynolds, D. (1990). Managing for improved school effectiveness: An international survey. School Organization. 10:2, pp. 167-178.

Barth, R. (1990). Improving schools from within. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Calabrese, R.L. & Adams, C.F. (1998). A comparative analysis of alienation among secondary school administrators. Planning and Changing, 18(2), 90-97.

Calabrese, R.L. & Tucker-Ladd, P.R. (1991). The principal and assistant principal: A mentoring relationship. NASSP Bulleton, 75(533), 67-74.

Crow, G., & Matthews, L. (1998). Finding one’s way: How mentoring can lead to dynamic leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Daresh, D., & Playko, M. (1992). The professional development of school administrators. Toronto: Allyn and Bacon.

Dufour, R., & Barkley, T. (1995). The principal as staff developer. Journal of Staff Development, 16(4), pp. 2-6.

Egnatoff, J. (1965). The school principalship in Saskatchewan. Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan.

Evans, R. (1996). The human side of school change. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.

Fullan, M. (1997). What’s worth fighting for in the principalship. Toronto: Ontario Public School Teachers’ Association.

Fullan, M., & Hargreaves, A. (1991). What’s worth fighting for: Working together for your school. Toronto: Ontario Public School Teachers’ Federation.

Goleman, D. (1998). “What makes a leader?” Harvard Business Review. November-December 93-102.

Hallinger, P., & Heck, R. (1996). “Reassuring the principals’ role in school effectiveness: A review of empirical research. Educational Administration Quarterly, 32:1 (February, pp. 5-44).

Hartzell, G.N. (1993). The assistant principal: Neglected actor in practitioner leadership literature. J. School Leadership 3(6) 707-23.

Henderson, N., & Milstein (1996). Resiliency in schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Hesselbein, F. et. al. (1996). The leader of the future. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Howley, C., & Eckman (1997). Sustainable small schools. Charleston, West VA: ERIC Clearing House on Rural Education.

Leider, R. (1996). “The ultimate leadership task: Self-leadership.” In: Hesselbein et al. The Leader of the Future. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Leithwood, K., Jantz, D., Silins, H., & Dart, B. (1993). Using the appraisal of school leaders as an instrument for school restructuring. Peabody Journal of Education 68:2, pp. 85-109.

Little, J. (1987). Teachers as colleagues. In: Richardson-Koehler, V. (ed.) Educators’ Handbook, pp. 491-518. White Plains: Longman.

Kaiser, J. (1995). The 21st century principal. Mequon, WI: Stylex Publishing.

Marshall, C., & Greenfield, W.D. (1985). The socialization of the assistant principal: Implications for school leadership. Education and Urban Society, 18(1), 3-6.

McAdams, R. (1998). “Who’ll run the schools? The coming administrator shortage.” The American School Board Journal. August (pp. 37-39).

McEwan, E. (1998). Seven steps to effective institutional leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Murphy, J. (1992). The landscapes of leadership preparation: Reforming the education of school administrators. Newburg National Association of Secondary School Principals (1992). Developing School Leaders: A Call for Collaboration. Reston, VA: NASSP.

Muskego, P. (1995). Leadership in First Nations schools: Perceptions of aboriginal education administrators. Unpublished Masters’ Thesis. Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan.

Panyako, D., & Rorie, L. (1987). The changing role of the assistant principal. NASSP Bulletin, 71(501), 6-8.

Peebles, W. (1994). The principal’s dilemmas in an urban high school. Unpublished Master’s project. Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan.

Portin, B., & Shen, J. (1998). “The changing principalship: Its current status, variability and impact.” The Journal of Leadership Studies (5:3) pp. 93-113.

Renihan, P. (1985). The Saskatchewan school principalship. Regina: SSTA.

Rosenholtz, S. (1989). Teachers’ workplace: The social organizationa of schools. New York: Longman.

Sametz, D. (1996). Determining effective leadership for effective schools. Unpublished Master’s project. Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan.

Schon, D. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Senge, P. (1990). The fifth discipline. N.Y.: Doubleday.

Sergiovanni, T. (1991). The principalship: A reflective practice perspective (2nd Ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Short, R., & Greer, J. (1997). Leadership for empowered schools. Columbus, Ohio: Merill.

Sigford, J. (1998). Who said school administration would be fun? Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press.

Smith, D. (1996). The following part of leading, in Hesselbein, F., The Leader of the Future. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Snyder, Karolyn (1998). Managing productive schools. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace Jovannovich.

Sutton, H. (1994). Perceived real and ideal use of rural Saskatchewan school principals. Unpublished Master’s project. Saskatoon: University of Saskatchewan.

Walker, K. (1998). Values and ethics in school leadership. Incorporated Association of Registered Teachers of Victoria, Seminar Series #73. Victoria, Australia: IARTV.


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Suggestions for Further Reading

The materials and processes in this document have been designed to provide a general introduction to in-school administration. Its content is, by nature therefore, far from comprehensive. Those who are interested in learning more about aspects of the principalship will be interested in identifying sources of further information. For this purpose, numerous readable resources which deal with the critical areas of the job have been identified. They are organized below according to the categories of general perspectives, leading effective schools, self-reflection in the principalship, principal mentoring and support, principal effectiveness, and dealing with critical issues. These will provide elaboration upon recent thinking and recent research concerning this important role. In addition, a few items are suggested regarding the vice-principal’s role.

General Perspectives on the Principalship

Daresh, J., & Playko, M. (1997). Beginning the principalship. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin.

Kaiser, J. (1995). The 21st century principal. Mequon, WI: Stylex Publishing.

Portin, B., & Shen, J. (1998). "The Changing principalship: Its current status, variability and impact". The Journal of Leadership Studies (5) (P. 3), pp. 93-113.

Ubben, G.C., & Hughes, L.W. (1997). The principal: Creative leadership for effective schools. Toronto: Allyn & Bacon.

Seyforth, J.T. (1999). The principal: New leadership for new challenges. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.
 
Leading Effective Schools/Learning Communities

Austin, G., & Reynolds, D. (1990). Managing for improved school effectiveness: An international survey school organization. 10:2, pp. 167-178.

Barth, R.S. (1990). Improving schools from within. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Findley, D., & Findley, B. (1992). Effective schools: The role of the principal. Contemporary Education. 63:2, pp. 102-104.

Goldring, E.B., & Rallis, S.F. (1993). Principals of dynamic schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Renihan, P., & Sackney, L. (1999). Reviewing school effectiveness: An approach. Saskatoon: Saskatchewan Educational Leadership Unit.

Short, P., & Greer, T. (1997). Leadership in empowered schools: Themes from innovative efforts. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Simon and Schuster.

Spech, M. (1999). The principalship: Building a learning community. Columbus, Ohio: Merrill.
 
Self-Reflection in the Principalship

Braham, B. (1994). Finding your purpose: A guide to personal fulfillment. Los Altos, CA: Crisp.

Heckman, P.E. (1996). The courage to change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Hunt, D.E. (1987). Beginning with ourselves. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books.

Sergiovanni, T. (1991). The principalship: A reflective practice perspective (2nd Ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
 
Principal Mentoring and Support

Bolman, L.G., & Deal, T.E. (1993). The path to school leadership: A portable mentor. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Crow, G. & Matthews, L. (1998). Finding one's way: How mentoring can lead to dynamic leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Daresh, J.C., & Playko, M.A. (1993). Leaders helping leaders: A practical guide to administrative mentoring. New York: Scholastic.

Murphy, J. (1992). The landscapes of leadership preparation: Reforming the education of school administrators. Newbury: National Association of Secondary School Principals.

Renihan, P. (1999). In-school leadership for Saskatchewan schools: Issues and strategies. Regina: Saskatchewan School Trustees Association.

Sigford, J. (1998). Who said school administration would be fun? Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
 
Principal Effectiveness

Blase, J., & Blase, J. (1998). Handbook of instructional leadership: How really good principals promote teaching and learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Fullan, M. (1997). What's worth fighting for in the principalship? (2nd Ed.) Mississauga, ON: Ontario Public School Teachers Federation.

Gupton, S.L., & Slick, G.A. (1996). Highly successful women administrators. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Leithwood, K., Begley, P.T., & Cousins, J.B. (1995). Developing expert leadership for future schools. Washington, DC: Falmer.
 
Dealing with Critical Issues

Calabrese, R., Short, G., & Zepeda, S. (1996). Hands-on leadership tools for principals. Princeton, NJ: Eye on Education.

Henderson, N., & Milstein, M.M. (1996). Resiliency in schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Howley, C., & Eckman, J. (1997). Sustainable small schools. Charleston, West VA: ERIC Clearing House on Rural Education.

Katz, N.H., & Lawyer, J.W. (1991). Communication and conflict resolution skills. Dubuque, IA: Kendall Hunt.

Ripley, D. (1997). Current tensions in the principalship: Finding an appropriate balance. NASSP Bulletin, May, pp. 55-65.
 
The Vice-Principalship

Holman, L.J. (1997). How to select a good assistant principal. Principal, 76: pp. 26-27.

Korv, J.M. (1993). The assistant principal: Crisis manager, custodian or visionary? NASSP Bulletin, 77: 556, 67-71.

Marshall, C. (1993). The unsung role of the career assistant principal. Reston, VA: National Association of Secondary School Principals.


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